Hailakandi district is a district of the Assam state with its administrative headquarters located at Hailakandi town. Hailakandi was declared as the sub-divisions of Assam on 1st June, 1869. Then Hailakandi was announced as a civil sub-division under the Cachar district. Though the place of Hailakandi has adopted the modern way of life yet it is rich in cultural heritage and tradition. There are some records present in the district which proves that the district also had participated in the Freedom Movement of India. The role of Hailakandi in India's freedom struggle started right from the Sepoy Mutiny is outstanding. In 1857, an interesting fight was occurred between the leaders from this region and the British soldiers at a place named 'Ron Tila' at Mohanpur of the present Hailakandi district. Many youths of the district also actively participated in many significant movements of Gandhiji's such as Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement. Among those youths, some prominent names are Sanat Das Gupta, Upendra Dhar, Abdul Matlib Mazumdar, Sunil Chakraborty, etc. Till the invasion of the British, the only means of transportation to this place was water. But the British had done lots of positive changes in the transport and communication system of the district. Finally, after India got its independence, the place of Hailakandi was emerged as a separate district in the map of Assam state in the year 1989.
Geographically, the district lies at 24°68'N latitude and 92°56'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 21 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 57.88% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,327 sq km. and it is bounded by River Barak and Cachar district on the North and East, Mizoram state on the South and East and Karimganj district on the West. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Katakhal and Dhaleswari. Moreover, it has two small rivers named Pola and Jita. The district receives heavy rainfall with high humidity in the summer season. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. Otherwise, the native enjoys a pleasant climate throughout the year. The actual rainfall in the district was 1582.4 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has only one sub-division namely Hailakandi. It also consists of 4 revenue circles likewise Hailakandi, Algapur, Katlicherra and Lala. Moreover, it is divided into 4 sub-districts, 3 towns and 331 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,59,296 including 3,37,890 are males and 3,21,406 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 951 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 954 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.45% including 20.45% were males and 22.51% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Muslim with 60.31% of the total population. The population density in the district is 497 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bengali with 84.72%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 38,280 out of which 19,811 were males and 18,469 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,441 out of which 1,532 were males and 2,909 were females.
The economy in the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Paddy and rice are the two most important agricultural crops in the district. In spite of launching many modern agricultural technologies by the government yet it is counted in the list of the backward districts. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a huge extent. On the other hand the district is scantily industrialized since it has a few agro-based industries and some big tea industries. The contribution of the Hindustan Paper Mill Panchgram in its economy is remarkable since it provides a large number of employment opportunities to its natives. In the year 2006 the Indian government declared Hailakandi as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 4,52,609 lakhs at current price and Rs. 3,23,295 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,17,130 lakh at current price and Rs. 87,390 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 56,249 at current price and Rs. 41,114 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of the most recognised educational institutions in the district are Abdul Latif Choudhury College, Adarsh Central School, Hailakandi Govt. Public High School, Indra Kumari Girls High School, Mainul Haque Chaudhury Memorial Science College, Sashi Bushan Institute of Open Learning College, Sanskrit College, Srikishana Sarda College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 74.33% out of which 80.74% are males and 67.6% are females. The literate population in the district is 4,07,366 including 2,26,836 are males and 1,80,530 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 2,51,930 including 1,11,054 are males and 1,40,876 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Hailakandi is fortunate enough to be blessed by the Mother Nature since it has vast expanse of cropland and meandering river. Some of the notable places of interest in the district are Siddyashar Bari Sibmandir at Badarpur Ghat, Pach Pirr Mukam in South Hailakandi, Kali Temple, Hailakandi Shiv Bari, Hanuman Mandir and many more.