Hugli, a district of West Bengal is named after the Hooghly River. The district has its headquarters in Hugli-Chuchura. In 1536 Sultan Mahmud Shah of Bengal permit the Portuguese traders to trade on the bank of Hooghly River and within a few days the Hooghly River was converted into a popular trading port. Very soon the place of Hooghly changed into a significant commercial centre and largest port in the Bengal. Later during the period 1579-80the Mughal ruler, Akbar granted the permission to a Portuguese captain named Pedro Tavares to set up a city anywhere in the Bengal province. Then they chose Hooghly and it became the first European settlement in Bengal. In 1599 the Portuguese traders built a convent and a church in Bandel. This is the first Christian church in Bengal known as ‘Bandel Church’ in the present days. In the same way, theDutch, theDanish, theBritish, theFrench, the Belgians and theGermans are some other European powers which have also visited the Hugli district. The British ultimately emerged as the most powerful among the other European countries. After India got its independence the district merged into the West Bengal. Hooghly as a district came intoexistence in 1795 with the Hooghly city as its headquarters. Later its headquarters shifted totheHugli-Chuchura town.Raja RamMohan Roy, the father of Indian Renaissance and the founder of Brahmo Samaj Movement was born on 22nd May, 1772 at Radhanagore village of Hugli district. Today also the whole country admired him for his efforts to abolish the practiceofSatisystem from Hinduism.
Within a few decades the town of Hooghly turned into a major commercial centre and the largest port in Bengal.Later in 1579-80 Emperor Akbar gave permission to a Portuguese captain Pedro Tavares to establish a city anywhere in the Bengal province. They chose Hooghly, and it became the first European settlement in Bengal. In 1599 the Portuguese traders built a convent and a church in Bandel. This is the first Christian church in Bengal known as ‘Bandel Church’ today.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°90'N latitude, 88°40'E longitude and 200 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 5.08% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies an area of 3,149 sq. km. and it is bounded by Howrah District on the south, Bardhaman District on the north, Hooghly River on the east,Bankura District on the north-west and Medinipur District on the south-west. The chief river of the district is Hooghly River. Climate of Hooghly is really pleasant and its climate is characterized as the tropical savanna climate. Its average annual temperature is 26.8°C. Its monthly temperatures range from 16°C to 33°C and maximum temperature often exceed to 38°C. most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season.The actual rainfall in the district was 1252.0 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-divisions namely Chinsurah, Chandannagore, Srirampore and Arambagh. The district comprises 18 assembly constituencies. Moreover, the district comprises 77 towns and 1,866 villages. The administrative language in the district is Bangali.
According to 2011census the district has a population of 55,19,145 including 28,14,653 are males and 27,04,492 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 961 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-11 the population growth rate of the district was 9.46% out of which 8.69% were males and 10.28% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslims with 82.89% and 15.77%of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,753 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bengali with 87.49%.In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 70,116 out of which 35,988 were males and 34,128 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 35,141 out of which 20,534 were males and 14,607 were females.
As compare to the other districts of West Bengal, the Hugli district is economically well developed. Jute cultivation is the backbone of its economy. The 'Hindustan Motors' plant located in Uttarpara of the district is one of the largest car manufacturing plants in India. It has also some other industrial complexes and the growing industries of the district provide abundant scope for the employment of the natives. The jute mills located on the banks of the Hooghly River are significantly contributing in its economy. In the year 2013-14 the Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 46,83,087 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 24,37,133 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 42,49,606 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 21,77,510 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 70,102 at Current Price and Rs. 35,921 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district provide a great platform for higher education in the state The district has 2992 primary schools, 408 high schools, 127 higher secondary schools, 22 colleges, and 6 technical institutes. Now a dayssome NGO's have come forward to propagate education among the backward classes of the district. The scenario of education of the district has been changing due to the impact of its economic situation. As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 81.8% including 87.03% are males and 76.36% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 40,78,388 including 22,11,777 are males and 18,66,611 are females.
Anil Basu,anIndian politicianandaformer member of theCommunist Party of India (Marxist) political party was born on 7th November, 1946 in Hooghly. He was elected to the Lok Sabha for seven times i.e. in 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2004 from the Arambagh constituency in West Bengal.
The tourist places of the district allures numerous travellers every year. Bandel is a place of the district and the Bandel church is identity of the place. Bandel is the birthplace of the eminent writerSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. The Imambarabuilding is situated on the bank of river Ganges at Chinsurah.Haji Mohammad was started to build it in the year 1841 and it was completed in the year 1861.During Akbar’s reign a Dargah named Fur Furah Sharif was built by him in Jangipara.At present it is a site for Muslim pilgrimage. Kamarpukur of the district is the birthplace of Shri Ramkrishna and Shri Ramkrishna Temple built in 1951 is a site of international pilgrimage. Tarakeshwar is the famous temple of Lord Shiva. Shanderswartala, the oldest temple in Chinsurah was established by Sidheswar Roychodhury. People from far distance place come to the temple to offer their prayers.