Historically, the name Panchkula is originated after the five irrigation canals or kuls (PanchKul or five canals). The canals take water from Ghaggar River. It was also known as Panchpura and Pinjore. Pinjore is also mentioned in ancient literature. Panchkula is the planned satellite city of Chandigarh Capital Region. Panchkula District came into existence in the mid of last decade of 20th century. The region had been associated with Aryans, Pandavas, Kushan and Yaudhey rulers and Gupta dynasty. The coins of the Gupta dynasty were found in the region.
Geographically, the district has a total 898 sq. km. area and occupies the rank 20th in State and 584th in India on the basis of this size. It lies at 30069'N latitude, 76086'E longitude and 365 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was total 43.66% forest area of total geographical area. The climate of the district is characterized as a sub tropical continental monsoon climate with extremely hot summers, fairly cool winters and good monsoon rainfall. The actual rainfall in the district was 809.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, it is divided into 2 sub-districts, 8 towns and 219 villages. Hindi is its official language. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Panchkula which is situated at a distance of 11 kms from the State Capital, Chandigarh.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,10,236 households with a total of 5,61,293 persons comprising 2,99,679 are males and 2,61,614 are females which causing it to rank 21st in the state and 536th in India. The density of population of the district is 625 persons per sq km. The sex ratio is pegged at 873 females for every 1000 males while the child ratio stands at 863 females per every 1000 males. The schedule caste population of the district is recorded as 1,01,830 including 53,868 are males and 47,962 are females. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 12,327 out of which 6,347 were males and 5,979 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,115 out of which 3,128 were males and 1,986 were females. According to the 2011 census, the percentage of the principal languages of the region are Hindi with 87.50% and Punjabi with 9.52%. The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 19.83% including 16.63% were males and 23.71% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 87.42% of the total population.
Economically, agriculture is the prime source of the income for the people of the region. The major crops of the region are sugarcane, paddy, maize, wheat, gram, barley and oil seeds. The subsidiary crops are chilies, pulses, fenugreek, onion and other winter vegetables. The other main occupation of the district is construction, trade and commerce, transport, storage and communications. The (GDDP) or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2005-2006 was Rs. 2,74,118 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,16,952 lakh at constant prices during the year 1999-2000. The (NDDP), Net District Domestic Product during the year 2005-06 was Rs. 2,53,560 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,01,868 lakh at constant price during the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income (NDDP), at factor cost during the year 2011-12 was Rs. 1,15,962 lakh at current price during the year 2004-2005.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 81.88% including 87.04% are males and 75.99% are females. The total literate population of the district is 4,05,318 including 2,29,862 are males and 1,75,456 are females. The district has several educational institutes including schools and colleges.
The region has several famous political personalities. Aruna Asaf Ali, a significant freedom fighter was born on 6th July, 1909 and died on 29th July, 1996. She dared to host the fag of the Indian National Congress at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay during the Quit India Movement, 1942. She was active in politics even after the independence. She became the first mayor of Delhi in 1958. She established a media publishing house in 1960s. the Government of India honored her with the prestigious Bharat Ratna Award in 1997.
The district has numerous famous historical and religious tourist places. These places are Mansa Devi Temple, Yadvinder Garden, Morni Hills, Nada Sahib, Cactus Garden, Kali Mata Mandir, Shalimar & Bella Vista, Urban Estate, Panchkula Golf Course, Red Bishop Convention Centre, Nahan Kothi. In the year 2020-2021, there were total 1,73,842 domestic tourists. who visited the above places. The peoples of the district are mainly involved in construction, trade and commerce, transport, storage and communications. Mata Mansa Devi is dedicated to goddess Mansa Devi. It is located in village Bilaspur, near Mani Majra, and Panchkula, Pinjore Garden or Yadavindra Garden is located in Pinjore, Panchkula district. It has style as the Mughal Garden. It was created by architect Nawab Fidai Khan in the 17th century. Later, it was refurbished by Patiala Dynasty Rulers Yadevendra Singh. Morni is a village and tourist attraction in the Morni Hills. It was named after a queen who once ruled the area.